Document Type : Original Research Article


1 Nursing Department, Technical Institute of Suwaria, Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq

2 Suwaria Primary Health Care Sector, Wassit Health Office, Wassit, Iraq

3 Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran

4 fasa un

5 pnu



Moraxella spp are Gram-negative coccobacilli which primarily cause human infections. Biofilm formation is an indispensable cause of bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR). In this study, biofilm formation and drug resistance profile of clinical Moraxella (M.) catarrhalis, M. osloensis and M. lacunata isolates were assessed in Baghdad, Iraq.

Methods: Totally, fifty Moraxella isolates including 23 M. catarrhalis, 19 M. osloensis and eight M. lacunata were isolated. The antibiotic susceptibility, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), BRO β-lactamases and minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were evaluated. The biofilm formation and cell cytotoxicity (against HaCaT cells) were assayed. The rate of β-lactamase genes was assessed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Results: The rate of ESBLs among M. catarrhalis, M. osloensis and M. lacunata included 47% (n=11), 36.84% (n=7) and 37.5% (n=3), respectively. BRO β-lactamases were also found in all the M.


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