Leukemia as one of the common cancers is still studied and needs improvement in diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we have examined the activity of hematopoietic stem cells, which can be a precursor to leukemia. Hematopoietic cancer cells, by affecting the bone marrow, preserve the source of stem cells for the development of blood cancers. Also, in this study, various signaling pathways, including Wnt, which regulates the production of blood cells, and the abnormal expression and function of miRNAs in leukemia have been investigated. We also analyzed various cellular and molecular factors that play a role in the occurrence of leukemia, as well as further studies in the field of cancer and immunology, which can lead to the discovery of new treatments and improve the function of the body's immune system against cancer cells.