Document Type : Original Research Article


Toxicology Department, Research Institute of Medical Entomology, Giza, Egypt



Imidacloprid [IMC] is a synthetic neonicotinoid insecticide. The aim of the present study was conducted to elucidate the exposure adverse effect of the IMC commercial formulation on hematological, oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and testosterone levels in male rats. The investigation also involved the protective effect of antioxidant vitamins C plus E. The results elucidated that the IMC significantly caused elevation in the serum liver and kidney functions, lipid profile, and alpha-fetoprotein [AFP] and pro-inflammatory markers levels as well as the liver and kidney oxidative stress markers. While the serum testosterone level and complete blood count [CBC] were disturbed, besides that the liver and kidney antioxidant enzymes activities were decreased. The protective effect of the pre-treatment with vitamins C plus E against IMC toxicity in the rat have a beneficial role in combating the adverse effects of IMC.


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