Awareness of postoperative infection rate is necessary to identify infections and implement preventive measures. The aim of current study was to compare active and passive surveillance methods regarding SSI. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 296 patients who were admitted to Shahid Sadoughi hospital, Yazd from 2018 to 2020. Surveillance for signs of SSI was done using passive (via pamphlet) and active (by telephone) methods during a period of 2 months. Among 296 patients, SSI was seen in 67 patients (22.6%). The frequency of SSI in active and passive methods was 65 (24%) and 2 patients (8%), respectively. Significant difference was seen between two care methods (P<0.05). According to these findings, the active care method was superior to passive method in diagnosis of SSI. Therefore, this method can be used for early detection of infection to reduce complications.