Various factors are effective in reduction or increase of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR). This study was designed to investigate the effective factors on ESR in adults participating study in Yazd in Iran. In this study, the data in cohort study was used. The variables of age, sex, Body Mass Index (BMI), alcohol consumption, smoking, infection, inflammation, cancer, and blood pressure were collected. There is a significant relationship between age, sex, systolic blood pressure, BMI, physical activity, joint and heart pain, osteoporosis and smoking history with ESR. Cancer history and diastolic blood pressure variables have no significant effect on ESR values. Results showed that ESR levels in an adult population are generally affected by age and sex.