Composition and chemical variation in the essential oil yield were studied among five wild growing populations of Dracocephalum Kotschyi Boiss. (Lamiaceae) from Iran. The hydrodistilled essential oils were isolated from aerial flowering parts of plant, analyzed by capillary GC-FID (Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry) were identified. Forty compounds were characterized represented 95.0 – 100 % of the total oil. Oxygenated monoterpenes constituted the main group of compounds (79.9-50.7 %) in the essential oils of all samples followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (46.1-13.9 %). Perilla aldehyde (49.3 %), limonene (41.6 %), neral (20.9 %) and geranial (22.0 %) were found to be the main compounds. Such great variations in the components of the oils may be ascribed to existence of chemotypes and adaptation of the species to specific habitat. The data obtained contribute to broaden the inventory of wild Dracocephalum Kotschyi populations of Iran to plan programs for the selection of chemotypes with new and specific uses in food and drug industries.